Thousands of migrants and refugees in Bosnia and Herzegovina trapped on the new Balkan route.
Since the closing of Hungary’s external border in the summer of 2015, most migrants in the Balkans have been trying to enter the EU via Croatia. This new Balkan route leads through Bosnia and Herzegovina, either from Serbia or from Albania and then Montenegro. Since then, more than 55,000 migrants and refugees have already used this route to enter Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In December 2019, there were still around 8,000 registered migrants in the country, most of them staying in the western part close to the Croatian border, in Una Sana Canton around the towns of Bihać and Velika Kladuša. In the first two months of 2020, And more than 1,800 new persons entered the country.
The local communities in Velika Kladuša and Sarajevo provided help and shelter to many people during the first months, but this solidarity could not keep up with the ever-growing number of people arriving. The local and national authorities were quickly overwhelmed and started to rely on UN agencies and national and international NGOs to provide support. However, the needs were manifold. The migrants and refugees needed food and drinks, medical support, clean clothes, a place for washing themselves and a place for sleeping.
Since September 2018, Caritas Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), in collaboration and coordination with its three Diocesan Caritas of Banja Luka, Mostar and Sarajevo, has been providing different types of support to migrants and refugees with the financial backing of other European Caritas organisations.
During the summer of 2018, smaller activities had already taken place, including distribution of food and equipment to migrant centres. Caritas BiH also undertook a study visit to Caritas Serbia, which has extensive experience in migrant support after almost a million migrants and refugees crossed the country in 2015. Based on their experience, Caritas BiH replicated the idea of a laundry service first in Bihać and, in winter 2020, in Tuzla.
These laundry services allow migrants and refugees to get their clothes washed and to thus improve their hygiene and prevent skin diseases. In the long term, they also save a lot of money as less new clothes need to be given out to replace dirty ones.
In addition, every year Caritas BiH provides so-called ‘winterisation support’ in the form of warm winter shoes to several hundred migrants, mostly children.
Caritas is currently also participating in the distribution of fresh food and hygiene articles, including pharmaceutical items, to various centres throughout the country (Delijaš, Hadžići, Salakovac and different locations in Una Sana Canton). All distributions are coordinated with authorities and other non-government organisations active in these camps.
As of yesterday, Bosnia and Herzegovina is officially in a state of emergency due the COVID-19 pandemic. The Director of Caritas Bosnia and Herzegovina issued an appeal to all staff members to respect the government’s orders, but without forgetting the people in need who depend on the services of Caritas. Caritas therefore continues its work, even though some non-essential activities are reduced or cancelled.
In Tuzla, the laundry service operates with reduced working: four hours a day, three days a week. It no longer washes the laundry of the two other organisations that are hosting migrants. Only the Red Cross is allowed to provide dry food once a day to migrants in Tuzla, all other support is suspended. The police is enforcing these restrictions.
Visits to camps are reduced to a minimum. Only organisations providing services and basic support can enter. Each person entering needs to take appropriate protection measures. Each camp has a quarantine/isolation space in case a resident shows symptoms of COVID-19. Caritas continues its distributions in Delijaš, Salakovac and to private accommodations. The Caritas laundry service in Bira camp is also still open. It is important to maintain high hygiene standards in the camps.
Update 9 March 2020
The laundry service operated by Caritas Bosnia and Herzegovina and Merhamet in Tuzla is up and running since January. Unlike the laundry service in the Bira camp (Bihać), where persons bring and pick up their clothes at the place where they are washed, the Tuzla laundry is a mobile service. Every day, two persons employed by Caritas Bosnia and Herzegovina and Merhamet go by car to the Tuzla bus station where most migrants are located and collect their clothes. They take it to a house with two sets of industrial washing and drying machines each. After washing and drying the clothes, they return them the following day. At the same time, they collect a new load of clothes from different persons.
In January the Tuzla laundry provided 98 services (washings), while in February the number rose to 687 services. Together with the laundry service in the Bira camp, Caritas Bosnia and Herzegovina provided 7,799 services in the first two months of 2020.
The Tuzla laundry also washes the blankets and sheets of another organisation that only works with smaller household washing machines.
Caritas Bosnia and Herzegovina is currently exploring other possibilities to provide support to migrants in Tuzla.
Update 14 January 2020
In 2019, more than 29,000 migrants arrived in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This figure is 21% higher than in 2018. Since the beginning of 2020, fewer people have been arriving, mainly due to the cold winter conditions. Over 7,500 migrants are currently estimated to be in the country, of whom 5,900 are staying in camps. The remaining persons are accommodated by private individuals or squat empty houses. Access to asylum remains a problem. Of the several hundred asylum seekers only three persons received refugee status and 46 persons received subsidiary protection in the past two years.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) opened a new camp for migrants in Blažuj near Sarajevo. It can accommodate 1,500 single men, but is currently experiencing issues with power supply that are expected to be resolved this month. 150 to 180 men were transferred by IOM to Blažuj from the migrant centre in Ušivak. The centre in Ušivak will now only host the most vulnerable migrant groups, including minors and families.
The other large camp in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Bira Temporary Reception Centre in Bihać, Una-Sana Canton, is exceeding its capacities and currently accommodates 2,223 migrants, 800 persons more than officially approved for this centre. The police is preventing IOM from providing better conditions in the camp and requesting that 800 migrants leave the camp. This is not possible because of lack of alternative structures.
All camps and reception centres in Bosnia and Herzegovina are currently running at full capacity, which explains that there are still children and unaccompanied minors (a child without the presence of a legal guardian) squatting on the streets of Bihać, Velika Kladuša, Sarajevo, Bijeljina, Tuzla and Mostar. Volunteers and local organisations do their best to provide them with accommodation. There are now 660 migrant children in the country, of whom 450 are unaccompanied minors. 84 children living in camps in Una Sana Canton are enrolled in local schools. School enrolment remains an issue in other cantons.
Next week, Caritas and Merhamet will open a new laundry service for migrants in Tuzla. Two previously unemployed persons have been recruited to work in this laundromat. Additionally, Caritas has increased the capacity of its other laundry service in Bira camp by 20% by adding two additional sets of washing and drying machines. Caritas is recognised as a reliable partner in the sectors of water, sanitation and hygiene as well as in the distribution of food for children and non-food items.
In cooperation with its partners, Caritas Bosnia and Herzegovina has also put in place a so-called winterisation programme for migrants living outside the camps in Tuzla and Sarajevo. Caritas is distributing winter clothes, 250 pairs of winter shoes and hygiene articles.
Further efforts still need to be made in all locations, especially concerning sanitation, hygiene, food and education. The coordination and collaboration among the different organisations providing support is improving with common needs assessments and information exchanges about implemented activities and needs seen in the field.
Update 11 December 2019
The authorities started evacuating Vučjak camp on 10 December. The evacuation was officially finalised the following day. About 330 migrants were transferred to the new camp of Blažuj and 370 migrants were resettled to the existing camp of Ušivak, both in Sarajevo Canton. Caritas is active in Ušivak where it provides mainly soap, shampoo, tooth brushes and similar items to ensure minimum hygiene standards.
Update 5 December 2019
The Vučjak camp is still open and the police force of Una Sana Canton still forces all migrants to go to this camp. The people staying in Vučijak are refusing assistance, such as food, as a protest against resettlement and to increase pressure on the EU to open its border. The humanitarian conditions in the camp are appalling. A few days ago, the Red Cross estimated that there were still 800 persons dwelling in Vučijak.
In autumn, the federal government identified an alternative location to the Vučjak camp in Blažuj, Sarajevo Canton. However, the local communities and authorities are hostile to the establishment of this camp. The migrants also declared that they could only be relocated there by force. Yesterday, after an announcement of the Minister of Security that all migrants in Vučijak would be transferred to Blažuj, many migrants left the camp towards the Croatian border, while others went into town.
The International Organisation for Migration (IOM) is managing the Bira camp near Bihać and aims to increase the camp’s capacities to an additional 1,000 beds. They want to provide shelter to migrants currently dwelling outside of the camp in the harsh Bosnian winter conditions. However, IOM suffers from restrictions on the number of people they can host imposed by the cantonal government. Caritas continues to run its laundry service in Bira and plans to increase the capacities by adding one additional laundry machine.
A second laundry service will be established in Tuzla by Caritas Sarajevo in collaboration with the Bosnian Muslim NGO Merhamet. In Tuzla, around 180 to 250 migrants are currently squatting around the bus station. They receive support, such as food from volunteers, but do not yet have any possibility to wash their clothes. The laundry service in Tuzla will provide this possibility and, thus, will contribute to improved hygiene and prevent the spreading of skin disease.
Update 18 October 2019
A few months ago, the government of Una Sana Canton opened a campsite on a former landfill in Vučjak, about 10 kilometres outside of Bihać. This site is surrounded by minefields and not appropriate for dwelling. It does not respect basic shelter and sanitation standards. However, by order of the local government police forces are relocating all migrants apprehended in the canton to this new site. The campsite has hosted 300 to 800 people in the past but is currently massively overpopulated with around 1,500 migrants. Around 150 new migrants arrive every day in Una Sana Canton.
The government of Una Sana Canton just announced that it would stop funding Vučjak but that the forced relocation to this site would not stop. It wants to put pressure on the State government to take action in Vučjak by providing financial support for migrant support. The UN agencies IOM and UNHCR do not intervene either. A major humanitarian crisis is looming.
The future of existing UN-administered shelters for migrants in Bihać (Bira reception centre where Caritas Bosnia and Herzegovina is working) and in Velika Kladuša (Miral center) is also unclear. Larger numbers of migrants have also started arriving in the city of Tuzla. They come mostly from Serbia into the Republika Srpska and are escorted by the police forces of this entity to the closest town in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is Tuzla. The migrants sleep in and around the bus station and receive help from volunteers. IOM is trying to escort families with children to safer locations, but they can only do this if these families registered with the Office for Foreigners in Tuzla, which is only open from 8 am to 4 pm. If the families didn’t register by 4 pm, IOM cannot house them in one of their centres. Caritas Bosnia and Herzegovina will search for possibilities in establishing an office and employ new staff in cooperation with Diocesan Caritas to establish a presence in Tuzla.
Italian television magazines Presa Diretta, TG LA7 and Studio Aperto accompanied Caritas staff working with migrants in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and documented the miserable conditions in Vučjak. A photo series of the living conditions of migrants in these countries can be found here.
Update 30 June 2019
The initial phase of funding for Caritas BiH’s work to improve the living conditions of migrants and refugees stranded in the country ended on 30 June 2019. However, since the situation has not improved, Caritas BiH continues providing support under new funding that has already been fully secured.
Over the initial 10-month period, to make the biggest possible impact to the benefit of people in need, Caritas BiH dedicated the largest amount of resources to the laundry service in the Bira camp. Approximately 13,000 people benefitted from this service.
The remaining funds were used for smaller scale activities, such as the provision of food and hygiene products and winterisation activities in the different camps.
Caritas BiH provided support to 380 children aged 0-5 years in the Salakovac, Hadžići, Delijaš and Una Sana Canton camps. Due to their young age, these children have special dietary and nutritional needs as well as require specific hygienic and sanitary products. Caritas BiH also carried out monthly distributions of hygiene products in the Ušivak camp.
In the Delijaš camp, Caritas BiH distributed fresh food to 1,421 people, mainly vegetables, fruits and milk which are not found in the monthly food packages provided by the Ministry.
497 migrants, mainly children, received winterisation support in the form of appropriate winter shoes.
Additional activities consisted of the distribution of monthly supplies of tea and coffee (in Delijaš) at the tea and coffee corner where asylum seekers could also seek psychosocial support and attend cooking or language classes. Caritas BiH also provided medical materials to support the management of the Salakovac camp in establishing an ambulance.
To continue aiding migrants and refugees stranded in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Caritas BiH will maintain its activities aimed at improving living conditions, mainly via the provision of quality nutrition, particularly to children under the age of 5, and of personal hygiene items, especially for families with children. Caritas BiH will also aim at improving the quality of social life of migrants in the camps. The main activity will continue to be the provision of the laundry service.
Update 24 May 2019
During the first ten months of the emergency, Caritas BiH assisted more than 15,000 migrants and refugees with an initial budget of €90,000 provided by Caritas Austria, Caritas Belgium, Caritas Italy, Caritas Spain and Caritas Switzerland. However, with the Croatian police illegally using violence to push back migrants, most people are now stuck in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the needs are not decreasing. In fact, the humanitarian situation has worsened in some camps. Caritas BiH decided to continue its activities building on the past experiences.
Caritas BiH made a call for new funds to cover the support for the next ten months. Together with its Diocesan Caritas, Caritas BiH is continuing the monthly distribution of fresh food and hygiene packages, as well as the provision of food and non-food items for small children. The main support remains the laundry service, which thousands of migrants can access every month in the Bira camp. It works with four washing machines and four dryers. These industrial machines have the capacity to wash up to eight kilos of clothes at a time and with a shorter cycle than what domestic machines have, they are capable of completing up to 35 washing cycles per day. Caritas employs two full time and two part time staff to work in the laundry service. As part of lessons learnt during the first 10 months of the emergency, the working hours of the laundry service have been extended and it is now also open on Saturdays.
The laundry service is essential to guarantee minimum hygiene standards in the Bira camp, which currently hosts more than 1,000 people, most of whom are young men. Because of the limited capacities, IOM is running a second laundry service that only washes bedlinen, pillows, blankets and other items needed to run the camp.